Type OF Vessel

courses-merchant-navy

  • General Cargo Ships (Sometimes Called Break-Bulk Carriers)
    These ships will mostly have four or five holds (a hold is the cargo space in a ship), with one or, in a few cases, two holds aft of the engine room, and four to five holds generally forward of the engine room.General Cargo Ship They have long protruding rigging for winches by each hold. These winches are used to load and unload the cargo. The cargo is usually packaged and moved as single parcels, or assembled together on pallet boards. Longshoremen go down into the holds to hook up the cargo to be lifted out. Some general cargo ships may also have refrigerated spaces for perishable cargo. The average general cargo ship is about 500 feet long.
  • Bulk Carriers
    Merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds. Since the first specialized bulk carrier was built in 1852, economic forces have fuelled the development of these ships, causing them to grow in size and sophistication. Today’s bulkers are specially designed to maximize capacity, safety, efficiency, and to be able to withstand the rigors of their work.Bulk CarriersRange in size from single-hold mini-bulkers to mammoth ore ships able to carry 400,000 DWT. Like general cargo ships bulk carriers will have large hydraulic hatches covering the holds, but will not have any overhead rigging. Bulk carriers are used for things such as grain, ore, wood chips, etc, that can be poured down into a hold. They will load and off-load at special port terminals for whatever cargo they may carry. Sometimes the holds must be steamed cleaned by laborers when the ship is set to carry a different cargo than the one that it unloaded. The average bulk carrier ship is around 800 feet long.
  • Container Ships
    These ships are designed to carry large steel containers that are usually 20 feet or 40 feet long, eight feet wide and eight feet tall. These ships are loaded and off loaded by large cranes to and from trucks. There are some that are also designed where the bow opens up and barges are pulled in that have containers on them. Container ships are limited to ports that have container terminals.Container Ships
    The advantage of using containers is that all the cargo in each container will be destine for some location away from the port taken there by either truck or rail. This does away with the warehouses that are needed for general cargo ships where the cargo is divided up and loaded into truck trailers or railcars. Container ships come in many different sizes; some now are incredibly huge.
  • RO-RO Vessel Ships
    A Roll-On/Roll-Off [RO/RO] ship is specifically designed to carry wheeled and tracked vehicles as all or most of its cargo. Vessels employing this type of cargo handling equipment typically carry trailers, chassis or trailer-mounted containers, cars, rail cars, and other rolling machinery, and other cargo (such as containers) driven on to the vessel by use of a fork lift or other rolling machinery. These vessels sometimes use a “drive-through” system with access both forward and aft, which speeds the loading and unloading process.RO-RO Vessel Ships
    RO-RO is short term for Roll-On, Roll-Off. The RO/RO idea was an innovative one that evolved from ferries and now is revolutionizing the transport industry worldwide Over dimensional self-propelled/ motorized (on wheels: trucks, construction equipment, cars, etc.) cargo is rolled on to this special vessel and then simply rolled-off at destination port. This very simple way of handling your oversized cargo is the safest and cheapest way.
  • Auto Carriers
    These are huge ships that are nothing more than floating parking garages. They can hold between 2,000 and 4,000 vehicles.Auto Carriers Ramps are lowered out of the side of the ship and the vehicles are driven off. The average auto carrier is about 600 feet long, 100 feet wide and over 100 feet tall.
  • Oil Tankers
    An Oil Tanker is a large ship designed to move oil around the world. Their size depends on whether they travel along inland or coastal routes and the amount of oil they carry. Oil tankers carry around 2,000,000,000 metric tons of oil each year.Oil Tankers
    These are little more than oil drums with an engine. Though the most common tanker hauls oil, there are other tankers that haul many different types of liquids and gases. You can spot a tanker by the large amount of piping forward of the bridge on the main deck. The piping is for loading and off loading the cargo. There will be no large hatch covers like there is on general cargo ships and bulk carries, but there will be much smaller manholes at each tank for workers who need to climb down into the holds to work.
    Just forward of the bridge is the pump room, where the pumps for the ballast system will be found. Tankers come in all sizes, with the largest ones being supertankers that are nearly a quarter of a mile long and wider than a football field. There are few ports that supertankers can enter and thus they are mostly loaded and off-loaded from pumping stations off shore.
  • Refrigrated Cargo Ships
    Refrigerated Cargo Ships are basically fast general cargo ships with extensive refrigerated spaces for the transport of meat, fruit, and dairy products. They may several decks. Cargo may be carried frozen or chilled.Refrigrated Cargo Ships Hold volume is less than an equivalent sized cargo ship because of the space taken by insulation-about 25 percent less for chilled cargo and about 35 percent less for frozen cargo. If all cargo spaces are refrigerated, the ship is called a fully refrigerated ship, or reefer. If only some of the holds are refrigerated, the ship is a partial reefer; the refrigerated holds are generally those closest to the machinery spaces.
  • Fishing Vessels
    Most people think of fishing vessels as being just boats, but in today’s industrial world many of these vessels are as large as some ships and, in some cases, they are converted general cargo ships.Fishing-Vessels The following are different types of fishing vessels:A. Fishing boats – These may be as long as 90 feet and will have refrigerated holds.B. Processors – These ships not only catch fish, but also within them there is a factory to completely process the fish. The factory deck will be right under the main deck and the fish come in and they are cleaned, filleted and packaged.C. Non-fishing processors – These are a rather new type of ship that a few multinational corporations use. All that I have seen have been converted general cargo ships that have huge factory decks and refrigerated holds.
  • Oil Industry Vessels
    These are the vessels that are used by the oil industry in offshore drilling. These include work and living barges, supply boats, and pipeline vessels.
    Oil-Industry-Vessels The pipeline vessels will have huge rolls of pipe that they roll out into the water to connect the offshore oil well with an onshore facility.
  • Passenger Ships
    Today passenger ships are mostly used as cruise ships, but there are still a few passenger ships that transport people from port to port for the purpose of transportation, rather than sightseeing.Passenger-Ships Some cargo ships will also include rooms for passengers, because if a ship has passengers, in many ports, it is allowed to dock before other ships.
  • FerryBoats
    These are still in use in places where bridges cannot be built or are not constructed, for one reason or another. Some cross short bodies of water, while some sail long distances, like the Alaskan ferry.Ferry-Boats Ferries come in all sizes; from small passenger only ferries to the huge ferries the size of container ships that are used in northern Europe.
  • Tow And Tug Boats
    These are small vessels that generally have two powerful engines.Tow-And-Tug-Boats Towboats are used for moving barges while tugboats are used to move ships, in most cases to dock them.
  • Barges
    These are unpowered vessels that require a towboat to move. Barges are used to transport different cargoes of which there are three basic types:
    Barges there is the sunken hold type for such things as grain and ore, the flat top type for such things as containers and the tanker barges for liquids and gases. There are also barges for many other purposes; living barges, work barges, crane barges to name a few.